Some Basic Concepts
Letters and Syllables
Letters—There are 26 Letters in English. They can be classified into two groups :
Vowels—The Letters that can be pronounced without the help of any other Letter are called Vowels. They are five—a, e, i, o, u.
Consonants—The remaining 21 Letters are called consonants. They cannot be pronounced without the help of a Vowel.
Note—W and Y are the two Letters that can be used both as Vowels and Consonants.
Words—Any sound produced by the mouth, which has a meaning, is called a word. A word is formed by one or more Letters.
Syllables—The part of a word pronounced in one instance is called a syllable. A word can have one or more syllables.
Sentence—“A combination of words that makes complete sense is called a sentence.” —(J. C. Nesfield)
“A group of words which makes complete sense is called a sentence.” —(Wren and Martin)
Phrase—“A combination of words that makes sense, but not complete sense, is called a phrase”. —(Nesfield)
“A group of words which makes sense but not complete sense, is called a phrase.” —(Wren and Martin)
As—of great courage, at the door, sands of time, etc.
Clause—“A group of words which forms part of a sentence, and contains a subject and a predicate, is called a clause.”—(Nesfield)
He said that he was not well.
Do you know the man who came here yesterday ?
Kinds of Sentences
Sentences are of Four kinds:
As—India is a great country.
He is a noble man..
As—What is your name ?
Is he a dependable man ?
Go away from here.
As—Alas ! I am ruined. What a terrible shock it was ! How shameful !
Parts of Speech
Different words used in a sentence have different functions. According to these functions, words can be classified into 8 categories. No word has any fixed category. Its category depends upon its function in a sentence.
These eight categories are called Parts of Speech—
As—Ram, table, sweetness, iron, sheep, etc.
As—he, she, you, I, we, it, they, etc.
An adjective qualifies a noun or a pronoun.
As—a good boy, a fast train, much labour, five coins.
As—She went to school.
Kanpur is an industrial town.
He is dumb.
As— He worked hard.
He came suddenly.
She is very slow.
She finished her work very quickly.
As—on the road, in the house, by courtesy, with him, etc.
As—Ram and Shyam, through thick and thin, He ran fast but missed the train.
As—Alas ! Hurrah, Oh !